Sinus Tarsi Syndrome: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
Sinus Tarsi Syndrome (STS) is a type of foot pathology, resulting either from the traumatic injury or recurrent injuries or sprain to the ankle during running or walking on a flat foot. It mostly hits athletes or dancers whose professions require a lot of jumping, sudden or quick movements and sudden stops.
What do we mean by Sinus Tarsi Syndrome (STS)?
The word ‘sinus’ commonly refers to cavity in the bone. The cavity, Sinus Tarsi, is a small cylindrical cavity outside the ankle between the talus and calcaneous bones. Swelling around the Sinus Tarsi region or injury to any of the surrounding ligaments results in Sinus Tarsi Syndrome.
What are the common symptoms associated with Sinus Tarsi Syndrome?
Symptoms related with Sinus Tarsi Syndrome arise gradually over a period of time. Its symptoms are worse during morning but start improving as you warm up. Its symptoms include:
- Sharp and pinching pain at the top and/or outer side of foot and ankle
- Pain worsens during the activities like; walking or jumping
- Stiffness in the ankle
- Instability is felt while walking or running on uneven ground or slopes and during jumping or changing directions
- Sinus Tarsi region may be felt tender when touched
- Pain during ankle movements; especially when you move the sole of foot inwards or downwards
- Pain intensifies with weight-bearing
What are the causes of Sinus Tarsi Syndrome?
The exact reason of Sinus Tarsi Syndrome is still a matter of debate. Trauma to the ankle is considered to be the most common cause of this pathological condition. Other than this, below mentioned factors give arise to Sinus Tarsi Syndrome:
- An inversion injury to the foot that is not treated properly
- Over growth of nerve or fat tissues in the cavity
- Deviations in bone structures
- Bone Spurs
- Arthritis and Bone bridges
- Ganglion Cysts
- Foot Deformities (like Flat Foot)
- Sitting with your feet tucked under you
- Poor foot Bio-mechanics
- Inappropriate Footwear
- Poor flexibility and muscle weakness
How can Sinus Tarsi Syndrome be treated?
Physical Therapy treatment under the guidance and surveillance of expert Physical Therapist is the best treatment option available to treat Sinus Tarsi Syndrome. Therapeutic techniques employed by Physical Therapists not only speed up the recovery but also reduce the chances of recurrence. A complete Physical Therapy Treatment plan consists of:
- Initially, RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) therapy is advised to to reduce and eliminate pain and to help tissues to heal
- Activity triggering pain and swelling is identified and eliminated to reduce muscle tension
- Stable shoes, an ankle sleeve or brace and over the counter or special orthotics are recommended
- Electrotherapy, laser therapy and cryotherapy is employed
After the pain and swelling are subsided, physical therapists perform following exercises to enable the patient to return to normal activities:
- Joint mobilisation exercises are performed to reduce stiffness
- Stretching exercises including; calf stretches and strengthening exercises are performed
- Balance Training is provided to prevent instability
- Bio-mechanical correction is advised
- Flexion exercises are administered to strengthen the muscles
Contact Active Physical Therapy for the state-of-art and effective treatment of any of your musculoskeletal problem and disorders. Our proficient physical therapists create and develop customized treatment plans while taking into view your needs and urgencies.